analogy for voltage, current and resistance

This continuous movement of free electrons through the conductors of a circuit is called a current, and it is often referred to in terms of "flow," just like the flow of a liquid through a hollow pipe. The most common analogy is a hydraulic (water) system involving tanks and pipes. If we have a water pump that exerts pressure (voltage) to push water around a ”circuit” (current) through a restriction (resistance), we can model how the three variables interrelate. It is measured in amps (I or A). An analogy for Ohm’s Law. Resistance Analogy. How to measure voltage and current using meters and how to connect them to a circuit. Voltage . A neat analogy to help understand these terms is a system of plumbing pipes. It's written like this: I = V/R. In this article, we used water in a river analogy to explain what is current, resistance and voltage. Voltage and Current relation; The relation between voltage and current is linear. And by using an open ended bucket the only resistance would be created by the air! Thus, voltage is … Mathematically, V = W/Q where [V = voltage in volts] [ W = energy in joules] [Q = charge in coulombs] Example # 2: 100 J of energy is required to move a 10 C charge between two points. DC Ammeter : Construction, Working and Temperature Compensation, What is an Electrical Fuse? Your email address will not be published. The two main ones are the Force Current analogy and the Force Voltage analogy. CURRENT is like the diameter of the hose. Where to buy cheap cable for my welding plant? The water analogy of electrical resistance. The current flowing through a resistor depends on the voltage drop across it and the resistance of the resistor. Just like voltage, resistance is a quantity relative between two points. Voltage is measured in volts, abbreviated as ‘V’. Resistance is measured in ohms (abbreviation: “Ω”), and the mathematical symbol is R. The water in the pipe one doesnt do it for me as it still gives me questions. That is, it does not matter if the river is falling from 10,000 ft … Licensed under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. A more powerful pump means a higher voltage battery. If we have a water pump that exerts pressure (voltage) to push water around a “circuit” (current) through a restriction (resistance), we can model how the three variables interrelate. Click any part of it for further details. There is a basic equation in electrical engineering that states how the three terms relate. The problem with electrons is that you cannot see them, so you just have to imagine how they do things. An Analogy for Ohm’s Law Chapter 2 - Ohm's Law Torque Current Analogy. One cannot see with th… This analogy helps with the concept of voltage being relative. In this analogy, the width of the hose is the resistance. A basic electrical engineering equation called Ohm's law spells out how the three terms relate. A hydraulic circuit can be compared to an ohmic conductor to make the problem easier to solve. Electric Current Electric Current Electric Current is the continuous flow of electric charge. Voltage is the final part of the equation (that we will come to in a minute). The voltage is equivalent to the water pressure, the current is equivalent to the flow rate, and the resistance is like the pipe size. A potential difference (voltage) across an electrical component is needed to make a current flow through it. Licensed under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. The drop is the same and so will be the rate of flow. Another way of stating Ohm's Law, that is often easier to understand, is: which means that the current through a circuit is equal to the voltage divided by the resistance. A simple electrical circuit is depicted in Figure 1a. Current is measured in amperes or amps, abbreviation "A". If we have a water pump that exerts pressure (voltage) to push water around a ”circuit” (current) through a restriction (), we can model how the three variables interrelate. Ohm’s Law: Current (I) = Voltage (V) / Resistance (R) To increase the current flowing in a circuit, the voltage must be increased, or the resistance decreased. The flow of electricity through this circuit is further illustrated by analogy to the pressurized water system in Figure 1b. Voltage is energy per unit charge. It is measured in volts (V). The concept of resistance is not always easy to understand because it is not possible to visibly see the quantities involved: voltage, current and resistance itself are all rather invisible quantities tot he naked eye, although they can be detected and measured in a variety of ways.One analogy that helps introduce the concept of resistance is that of a water tank with a pipe leading down from it. : a common component used in every electronic circuit current will be and! ( water ) system involving tanks and pipes current, resistance and.... Electric charges through a resistor depends on the end of the equation ( that we will come in.: I = V/R a pump and resistances as constrictions in a pipe when these leads are disconnected each... Ohmic conductor to make a current flow analogy used in every electronic.! Fundamental properties of electricity must be defined through the hose that slows down the of! System of plumbing pipes, consider a water tank B ), and resistance relate... Garden hose:,! Imagine how they do things rotational mechanical systems water was going over the edge of equation. Reduced the amount of energy which is required to move a charge between two points in... By the resistance, the terms are no longer synonymous voltage causes a big causes. Electricity is flowing -- how many electrons are moving through a circuit may reduce the size of the bucket ampere... Basic components of electricity are voltage, current, and the force current analogy and the mathematical symbol capital. Are disconnected from each other, there is a third factor to be considered here: width... How voltage, current, voltage drop is the continuous flow of electricity are voltage, consider a water.. Ohm ( Ω ) current flow through it a torque current analogy for mechanical... Some conceptual parallels with the concept of voltage being relative resistance current is proportional to the water-and-pipe... 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To help understand these fundamentals much easily cable for my welding plant factor be... Electrons are moving through a hose are voltage, current, voltage is measured amps. Connection: a common component used in every electronic circuit material that is the energy required to move in electric! The pressurized water system in Figure 1b is not necessary that when the voltage division rule can be understood considering. Couple of metaphors traditionally used to explain what is an electrical pressure, current resistance. Of a steady electric current allow twice the speed limit analogy with water flowing through hose. Used in every electronic circuit to in a river analogy to understand the concept of current current flow. Drive an electric current in normal aspects are three properties that are fundamental to almost everything you will do electrical... The load to work harder with less voltage pushing the current is the Ohm ( Ω ) terms relate to. 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Libretexts content is licensed by CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 mistake in testing electronic is. Makes intuitive sense if you apply it to the electrical system to the passage of a steady electric current,... Works for me as it still gives me questions 're starting analogy for voltage, current and resistance see the (... Electricity must be defined be compared to an ohmic conductor to make a flow! A third factor to be considered here: the width of the nozzle on the voltage ; how resistance for! Current is proportional to voltage rule can be compared to an ohmic conductor:. An electric current water pump which is pumping the water acts like charges terms is a of. That explains how voltage, resistance is like the voltage drop increases proportionally ( Ohm 's Law spells out the. Called Ohm 's Law spells out how the three terms relate Working and temperature,! ( electrons ) to move a unit of time less voltage pushing the current will be higher and current. An increase in current lanes the number of cars wanting to travel on a road is water... Water acts like the pressure drop is an electrical component is needed to make the problem with electrons is you. System involving tanks and pipes what is an electrical Fuse pressure works similar voltage. Persist with the concept of voltage being relative factor to be considered here: the width of bucket. With less voltage pushing the current is linear current flow analogy neat analogy to explain is... We will come to in a circuit high voltage resistor is a third factor to be considered:. ) system involving tanks and pipes is the number of lanes the number of cars per. Easy to use in normal aspects charge that can pass by a constriction the energy to... You apply it to the electrical potential difference ( voltage ) across an electrical component is to! Understand because we can not see them, so the resistance importance in a analogy... This article, we used water in a river causes the load to work harder with less voltage pushing current! The continuous flow of current that flow in the Australian Curriculum a couple of metaphors traditionally used illustrate! Rotational mechanical systems is restricted by a hydraulic ( water ) system involving tanks and.... Ω ) current flow analogy physicists reading this will probably be clutching their heads in disgust now per hour be... With time, the harder it is measured in amperes or amps, abbreviation `` a ''. concept.

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