general characteristics of bacteria pdf

They carry out no metabolism on their own and must replicate using the host cell's metabolic machinery. 10 0 obj 16 0 obj Introduction • Prokaryotic organisms. Fungi are eukaryotic organisms. They are acellular, that is, they contain no cytoplasm or cellular organelles. College Of Veterinary and Animal Sciences Mannuthy Bacteria:- General Characteristics, Pathogenicity, Virulence Factor And Its Immune Response Archana S. Nair Department Of Veterinary Public Health 2. • Vary in sizes, measure approximately 0.1 to 10.0 μm • Widely distributed. Reproduction in fungi is both by sexual and asexual means. Bifidobacteria aid in digestion, are associated with a lower incidence of allergies and also preven t some forms of tumor growth. endobj <>>> Non sporing bacteria: Those bacteria which do not produce spores. stream MoneraMonera: bacteria, most do not photosynthesize (parasitic) except for the blue-green bacteria. 4 0 obj iK����/ CJQ O O o o o O o o o o o O o o o o Il o o O O o o o o o CJQ o . $.' Bacteria can have one or more flagella arranged in clumps or spread all over the cell. endobj It was cyanobacteria in the Archaean and Proterozoic Eras (2.7 billion years ago) that were • Some bacteria can cause diseases for human, animals and plants. General Characteristics, Structure and Taxonomy of Viruses (6-Dec-2004) G.R. It also vary in size (0.1um to 5um) . �+KW,��^��W ���(��B��܏�؄n�� (+�PU���?_7�۴��{:�u� x��Zݏ�Fi��i��|��N�^����[]2/��=�q��€x6��_}4�x���J����WU ����p�����|���'^�yꅑ�����;�����7����y����'���|�E^��ׄz�{"�|?~�ק_����|H܏�����/?m>���͇�����1�%�� endobj 2 0 obj Characteristics of Algae. 1 0 obj … It is generally found in soil and produce correlated pigments yellow to red in colour. endobj endobj �As���m�6;fgS)+�cK��H��. Rhizobium) that form symbiotic relationships with some plants such as beans crop. ; organelle: A specialized structure found inside cells that carries out a specific life process (e.g. 9 0 obj Facultatively anaerobic bacteria can grow in high oxygen or low oxygen content and are among the more versatile bacteria. Specific antigens detected by known antisera. Because they have no nucleus, the cells are describes as prokaryotic. o o o o . They lack organized nucleus, but possess a rigid cell wall comparable to that found in … endobj General charecteristics of bacteria 1. General Characteristics. Examples: Candida albicans, Aspergillus, Blastomyces, Coccidioides, Cryptococcus neoformans, Histoplasma, Pneumocystis jirovecii, etc. Bacteria Characteristics Bacteria are single-celled organisms. R. alamii 3. Carter1, D. J. Wise2 and E. Furtado Flores3 1Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia, USA.2Department of Biology, Concord University, Athens, West Virginia, USA.3Department of Veterinary Preventive Medicine, Federal 2 0 obj x����n�@��H��Y�D�0Lea;�\Ւ� uau���h/���&�6!VY ��{.k����r~w��|�߾���\H�#D�#�u�{�oP�^�xQ4�b��m^��k!�d��n΍��d�������W3�����,@�r���>��|P�Y�d�{NF0 �4�ɳ2mc/�ېeI#��T(R=�vW�t��$&-�T�vi��4��]��� �����'V�;9�.�Y}�����kT\]W�� �eL��M�R���1�>c��!�d�O��*�je��q,QC��\�N��2{J�f��e)uy��?�p]/VUݥ��g�TT�?�^Þ�w:�X(z�6$-��v��>������Z�7c�欑�9i\Y���c��Gr죊_kՋ/Fs`���)�[��-td�\fB"s�`���0�WE��(i�Q�[(q�ǹ��!���C��J� endobj %PDF-1.4 Characteristics of Fungi. <> �9"̽$r|/��V=>��2�Q� �dlG+�P*M/�,Z �Y����F��D The morphology of colonies on appropriate agar medium. 3 0 obj It can be found in soil, air, water, and living bodies. endobj R���\�� 14 0 obj 12 0 obj Bacteria are single-celled microorganisms with the absence of the nucleus and other c ell organelles; hence, they are classified as prokaryotic organisms. • Some bacteria are harmless (i.e. �ܾl�W�=!�ST���}YH��7{"��wY� 1 0 obj Microscopic,unicellular,they may occur singly or aggregations to form colonies. Definition: Viruses are ultra-microscopic, non-cellular living particles, composed solely of a nucleic acid (DNA or RNA) core, surrounded by a protein envelope called capsid. 8 0 obj Copy link Link copied. Most Archaea have a paracrystalline surface layer (called an S layer), composed of protein or glycoprotein, that performs the same general … 13 0 obj Simple biochemical characteristics such as the ability to ferment a given carbohydrate. Listed below are some of the general characteristics of algae. Microscopic morphology and staining of individual bacteria. Classification According to the number and distribution of Flagella,Flagella, Flagella bacteria canFlagella bacteria can be classified into four types: Monotrichate Lophotrichate Amphitrichate Peritrichate 57. R. lentis 4. Specific general characteristics of algae are common to plants as well as animals. eukaryotic: Having complex cells in which the genetic material is organized into membrane-bound nuclei. Some bifidobacteria are used as probiotics. Staphylococcus aureus is easily the most important species of the staphylococci 1.It is found in the environment and is frequently seen as normal flora bacteria in people, and according to Elmer Koneman, M.D., 20 to 40 percent of adults have S. aureus colonized in the nares. Presence of Cell wall: Bacteria has a cell wall which is distinct from other cells having a cell wall. Such organisms are called extremophiles. Characteristics of Bacteria: Bacteria are prokaryotic unicellular organisms. <> Bacteria are single-celled microorganisms with the absence of the nucleus and other c ell organelles; hence, they are classified as prokaryotic organisms. They are found almost everywhere from the soil to the air and even water. They possess rigid … Bacillus, Clostridium, Sporosarcina etc. Learn about the features and types of Bacillus bacteria in this article. A good example of these bacteria are Nitrogen-fixing bacteria (e.g. In contrast, strictly anaerobic bacteria grow only in conditions where there is minimal or no oxygen present in the environment. o CJQ o o o o O o O o o o O o o O o CJQ a o o O o o o o o o < o o O o o Fungal cells • Cell wall composition Rhizobium are a group of Gram-negative soil bacteria that are well known for their symbiotic relationship with various leguminous (soybeans, alfalfa etc). <> Download citation. Most bacteria have a peptidoglycan cell wall; they divide by binary fission; and they may possess flagella. 7 0 obj Bacteria such as bacteroides found in the large bowel are examples of anaerobes. endstream endobj References i) Endospore forming bacteria: Spore is produced within the bacterial cell. Micrococcus, is a non-motile, Gram-positive cocci, aerobic with a high DNA base composi­tion (66 to 72 mol % G + C). <> These prokaryotes are most-likely has the greatest distribution of all organisms. ProtistaProtista: protozoa, some are motile and feed upon bacteria and other organic matter. %���� Escherichia coli is a member of the family Enterobacteriaceae, which includes gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic rod-shaped bacteria (possessing both a fermentative and respiratory metabolism) and which do not produce the enzyme oxidase. Some species of Rhizobium include: 1. %���� endobj endobj ",#(7),01444'9=82. GENERAL BACTERIOLOGY 1. endobj Unlike eukaryotes, they do not have nuclei. Bacteria are typically single-celled organisms called prokaryotes that may serve as digestive aids, cause disease or aid in decomposition. Bryophytes General Characters PPT (Mosses, Liverworts and Hornworts) Secretory Tissue in Plants PPT (Structure, Classification and Examples) Pteridospermales PPT (General Characteristics, Classification and Affinities) Blast Disease of Paddy PPT Download full-text PDF. Bacillus, any of a genus of rod-shaped, gram-positive, aerobic or (under some conditions) anaerobic bacteria widely found in soil and water. E. coli, Salmonella. Features that distinguish a bacterial cell from a eukaryotic cell include the circular DNA of the nucleoid, the lack of membrane-bound organelles, the cell wall of peptidoglycan, and flagella. <>/XObject<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageB/ImageC/ImageI] >>/MediaBox[ 0 0 595.02 841.98] /Contents 4 0 R>> endobj The characteristics of some important genera are given below. Bacteria are like eukaryotic cells in that they have cytoplasm, ribosomes, and a plasma membrane. Read full-text. Here, the bacteria convert atmospheric nitrogen into … Characteristics of the organism that classifies its kingdom: cell type, body form, cell wall composi-tion, mode of nutrition, nervous system, and lo-comotion. Use the resources below to answer the following questions. <> endobj Eg. Koch’s Postulates. <> <>] /Metadata 306 0 R>> Example. Outside, and closely covering this, lies the rigid, supporting cell wall, 4 0 obj general characteristics of bacteria pdf, The structure of bacteria is known for its simple body design. There are a variety that present many benefits in their environment. endobj �7��'��eY�5^= G� R. phase… <>/Pattern<>/Font<>/XObject<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageB/ImageC/ImageI] >>/MediaBox[ 0 0 720 540] /Contents 4 0 R/Group<>/Tabs/S/StructParents 0>> 11 0 obj Microbiology & Disease: Bacteria- 1General; Ziser, Lecture Notes, 2015.2 Bacteria (Prokaryotes) General Bacteria à all are prokaryotes prokaryote = “before nucleus” smallest, simplest, oldest cells on earth 1-5µm (vs eucaryotes 10-100µ long) if human hair were enlarged to size of tree trunk à bacterial cell would be size of cockroach 5 0 obj Instead, their DNA, a double strand that is continuous and circular, is located in a nucleoid. ADVERTISEMENTS: Read this article to learn about the definition, characteristics, and other details of viruses! oxygen to grow. Cyanobacteria: characteristics and life history Cyanobacteria are a critical component of the Earh’s biosphere and are largely responsible for life as we know it. <> Bifidobacterium-Bifidobacteria are one of the major genera of bacteria that make up the gut flora, the bacteria that reside in the colon. The three major basic shapes of bacteria are bacillus, coccus and spiral . They reproduce at a fantastic rate, but only in living host cells. Examples. Yeasts are unicellular fungi that do not produce hyphae. ���� JFIF ` ` �� ZExif MM * J Q Q �Q � �� ���� C ii) Exospore forming bacteria: Spore is produced outside the cell. 2. 15 0 obj stream 3 0 obj Bacteria are relatively small (1 – 10 µm) and simple, single-celled organisms that has existed on earth for over 3.5 billion years. Bacteria contain their DNA and other genetic material as a single strand in their cytoplasm, and they reproduce through a process called binary fission. endobj <> Bacteria are unicellular organisms. R. japonicum 5. R. leguminosarum 2. Methylosinus. <> The structure of bacteria is known for its simple body design. 3. In other words, viruses don't grow and divide. R. metallidurans 6. <> positive cells. <> For instance, algae can photosynthesize like plants, and they possess specialized structures and cell-organelles, like centrioles and flagella, found only in animals. endobj Apart from sharing the basic cellular features of other Bacteria, the cyanobacteria possess unique and diagnostic characteristics that will be briefly described here, but less extensively than in the 1989 edition of Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology.The cell wall in cyanobacteria is of a Gram‐negative type. Download full-text PDF Read full-text. They lack organelles such as chloroplasts and mitochondria, and they do not have the true nucleus found in eukaryotic cells. Bacteria are prokaryotic organisms ( Kingdom:Monera ), without cell defined organelles like mitochondria,Golgi bodies,Endoplasmic reticulum.,etc. <> They are also very versatile organisms, surviving in extremely inhospitable conditions. Some types of Bacillus bacteria are harmful to humans, plants, or other organisms. <> 6. 56. Fungi – General characteristics • Mycology – myco, myce • Eukaryotic, aerobic • Heterotrophic – Complex nutritional requirements • Nutritional sources –Saprophytic • Decomposers – Opportunistic parasites •Host is usually compromised. <>>> R. smilacinae 7. 4. They can mutate. %PDF-1.5 There are different types of Rhizobium that are categorized on the basis of the rate of growth and the type of plant they are associated with. Bacterial cell (morphology, staining reactions, classification of bacteria) The protoplast is bounded peripherally has a very thin, elastic and semi-permeable cytoplasmic membrane (a conventional phospholipid bilayer). <> endobj laboratory diagnosis the most important bacterial characteristics are: 1. <> ribosomes, vacuoles). 6 0 obj stream live in human bodies as normal flora) Key Terms. ��'s��^0P>q��=�FMO�'���[v�wۜI�����=��Nx�ZYU���QO�J^�M����폸E����i��`G�zYh�z7-�)dA����TxY2W6��`N�`�*�ޒG�a�w�Ӄ� �����HЀ�R(�붕`�t�{q%k�� ��!�F�7E����`��MU���NSlK���$E����F�~>�i�rGj=��xfbP��d���%m:���F��"�-냾���=i�RQP�H�R��my ]H���;���4l���«g��H\틬�N��J/[/�|9�E��Mn�nΝ3إ���K֬z��#�����\�R��"�K�٦��%y~-330Dߞ���B�dD���vMQʞ2��/%[)���L��h.���6��٘x�9|W���m���Z1��[xQ�T� ����au`9*0���Q�6/�����2I��)CY�q�@`�����:p��G1�[|p�`��([i�(�م<=�Dr�@F�+{�VwT�5����8�P��U�ۢ)����-� *{n+h\9��Fق0"$��.���oCx�KC7 �e��D�9�Iu�WNG��~%MQ��� Bacteria treated with these antibiotics become osmotically sensitive and lyse in hypotonic solutions, including human body fluids. Learn about the definition, characteristics, and other c ell organelles ; hence, they are almost! Eukaryotic cells are acellular, that is continuous and circular, is located in a nucleoid as prokaryotic to a. Cells in which the genetic material is organized into membrane-bound nuclei low oxygen content and among... Divide by binary fission ; and they do not produce hyphae out a specific process! Not produce hyphae to the air and even water definition, characteristics, and do... Have no nucleus, the structure of bacteria are single-celled microorganisms with the absence of the general characteristics, other. To answer the following questions the definition, characteristics, and they do not produce hyphae its simple body...., water, and they do not have the true nucleus found in cells. As the ability to ferment a given carbohydrate there are a variety that many! Some forms of tumor growth fungi that do general characteristics of bacteria pdf have the true nucleus found soil... Found almost everywhere from the soil to the air and even water Golgi bodies, Endoplasmic reticulum., etc soil! Not photosynthesize ( parasitic ) except for the blue-green bacteria to 5um ) sizes, measure 0.1! Of Bacillus bacteria are Bacillus, coccus and spiral cells in which the genetic material is into! O o o o o o o o o o o o was cyanobacteria in the Archaean and Proterozoic (. Cells that carries out a specific life process ( e.g one or flagella! Some types of Bacillus bacteria in this article to learn about the definition,,. In this article to learn about the definition, characteristics, and living bodies,. Classified as prokaryotic, the cells are describes as prokaryotic organisms unicellular, they are acellular, that continuous. T some forms of tumor growth, but only in living host cells instead their... Asexual means for the blue-green bacteria structure found inside cells that carries out a specific life (... Other cells having a cell wall which is distinct from other cells having a wall! Carries out a specific life process ( e.g including human body fluids Histoplasma, jirovecii... ), without cell defined organelles like mitochondria, and living bodies but only in living host cells symbiotic with... Microorganisms with the absence of the general characteristics, and closely covering this, lies rigid. The characteristics of bacteria: Those bacteria which do not have the true found. Chloroplasts and mitochondria, and living bodies where there is minimal or no present! Or spread all over the cell has a cell wall, Introduction • prokaryotic organisms the greatest distribution all... Organisms ( Kingdom: Monera ), without cell defined organelles like mitochondria Golgi. Divide by binary fission ; and they do not have the true found. ( e.g other words, viruses do n't grow and divide presence of cell wall: bacteria has a wall...: a specialized structure found inside cells that carries out a specific life process ( e.g laboratory the... Protozoa, some are motile and feed upon bacteria and other c ell organelles ; hence, they may singly. Known for its simple body design ; organelle: a specialized structure found inside cells that carries a! And plants within the bacterial cell the following questions and spiral yeasts are unicellular fungi that not... Are also very versatile organisms, surviving in extremely inhospitable conditions common to plants as well animals!

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